Mundis

Blockchain

The core Infrastructure that coordinates the Multiverse

The Layer 0 backbone governs the Multiverse, handles consensus between Layer 0 Validators, and keeps a verified history of all Layer 1 worlds. With sub-second block finality and Layer 1 state sharding, Mundis can scale to a large number of chains.

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Layer 0 Validators

Governance

A solid system ensuring the involvement of all stakeholders, and coordinating network upgrades on-chain, autonomously, with no forks needed.

A decentralised decision chain needs actors that can process transactions and participate in consensus. We call them Layer 0 Validators.

Layer 0 Validators are the keepers of the Multiverse. Besides validation tasks for transactions and consensus, they also participate in global governance. As the Multiverse grows, more Layer 0 Validators will be needed to increase the performance of the ecosystem, to promote decentralization and to make corruption economically unfeasible. To become an eligible Layer 0 Validator, you need to stake Mundis base tokens.

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Delegated
Proof of Stake

Efficiency

Next-generation Layer 0 delegated proof-of-stake (dPoS) model helps Mundis consume way less energy compared with other blockchains and achieve higher network throughput.

Proof-of-Stake introduces the idea of "stake" to the design of consensus-based networks, which means participants have "skin in the game."

Proof of Stake in Mundis confers varying degrees of authority on the Layer 0 Validators who secure the Multiverse. Each Layer 0 Validator has a different voting power based on the value of their active investment.

Mundis citizens can choose trustworthy Layer 0 Validators that provide the best service to the network.

Layer 0 Validators are rewarded according to their stake. This means it's in their best interest to attract and retain stake by showing good performance and returns, transparency, honesty, and a good relationship with his stakers. This means that Layer 0 Validator's financial compensation is aligned with the network's goals.

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Global timeline

Mundis has a single, global timeline for the entire ecosystem that gives a verifiable, exact order of events that happen in the Metaverse. It's a universally synchronized "clock" all validators use to synchronize themselves with the rest of the network. This clock is not based on actual time because that would require agreement on the actual time and trustless synchronization of time-based clocks throughout the Mundis network.

To circumvent clock synchronization issues, Mundis does not use real clock time or "wall clock time." Instead, it uses a "clock" based on the time it takes to run an SHA-265 VDF (Verifiable Delay Function) a fixed number of times. This was originally proposed by Solana as Proof of History.

Multiverse time is measured in ticks and was not designed to approximate human time but to be the global reference "clock" for the ecosystem.

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Layer 1 State Sharding

Scalability

Layer 0 Validators secure Layer 0 and Layer 1 Validators secure Layer 1 chains. Transactions are spread across parallel side-chains, offering financial and transactional scalability.

Mundis is a dynamic ecosystem where all Layer 1 chains are grouped into shards and asynchronously attached to Layer 0. This approach has clear benefits.

High scalability: increasing or decreasing the number of Layer 1 chains should not affect the performance of Layer 0.

Traceability: Layer 0 must deterministically compute the grouping of Layer 1 chains into shards.

Efficiency: shards should be balanced appropriately between Layer 0 Validators, so that Layer 1 chains will be Garbage collected once they lose the support of their Layer 1 Validators.

A special note: Mundis assumes all Layer 1 chains are adversarial by default. Layer 0 does not verify or execute any Layer 1 transactions, so it is the responsibility of users to ensure a Layer 1 chain is trusted before exchanging assets with that chain.

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services

Some critical services are needed for the Multiverse to work. These services run inside Layer 0 Validators nodes, as system programs in the Layer 0, and can be consumed by other chains or by external actors. Consuming a service might incur fees, depending on the nature of the action. Actions that alter the state of the ledger will have transaction fees because they require transaction validation.

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Identities

Identities in the Multiverse are not real identities, although they can be if a participant chooses to. An identity is simply a mean for the participant to create a public profile so he can be identified in the ecosystem; a profile must have a name and optionally an avatar.

Mundis has several roles for participants in the ecosystem: Layer 0 Validator – validates blocks and participates in global governance.

Layer 1 Validator – validates blocks for a side-chain and participates in the governance of a Layer 1 chain.

Citizen – has an active role in the Multiverse or in a specific Layer 1 chain.

Layer 0 Validators and Layer 1 Validators are required to have a Multiverse identity because they perform block validation. It is in their direct economic interest to be trusted by citizens, and the more trust they have, the more stake-weight votes they get, increasing their chances to receive block rewards.

Participants become Citizens by getting an identity in the Multiverse. Some services might be restricted only to Citizens, like the LaunchPad, but a side-chain can also make its services available only to Citizens if the builder of the LAYER 1 chain chooses to do so.

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Name Resolution

Like the Identity Service, name resolution provides friendly names for machine-readable identifiers such as addresses, content hashes, and metadata, like current Internet domains.

The Name Service supports forward and reverse-address resolution, making it possible to associate metadata such as canonical names with Mundis addresses. The Name Service is like DNS, the Internet's Domain Name Service, but has significantly different architecture due to the specifics of blockchains and the Metaverse. Like DNS, the Name Service operates on a system of dot-separated hierarchical names. The owner of a domain has complete control over sub-domains.

The name resolution service uses the top-level domain or TLD. Worlds and assets (tokens, NFTs) can get friendly names so they can be easily referenced, advertised, and found by other participants.

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Positioning System

Mundis has the notion of multi-space which are variable size 2D planes. A location is basically a unique set of coordinates that identifies a spot in one plane.

Based on simple 2D geometry, we can compute distance, area, perimeter, and other location-specific indicators in a plane and give routing instructions to a specific place.

The number and size of initially available 2D planes will be initially set and can increase or decrease in the future if Layer 0 Validators vote to do so.

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Storage and CDN

The Inter Planetary File System is a protocol and peer-to-peer network for storing and sharing data in a distributed file system. IPFS uses content-addressing to uniquely identify each file in a global namespace connecting all computing devices.

To deliver fast Distributed Storage resources, Layer 0 Validators will also host a Content Distribution Network service to accelerate IPFS file reads. This creates a geographically distributed content network that serves content to users by bringing it closer to where they are.

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Bridges

Interoperability

Token and asset cross-chain transferability. Just connect and interoperate with all chains in the Mundis ecosystem.

A cornerstone technology of blockchain interoperability is the blockchain bridge. Blockchain bridges are ways for two economically sovereign and technologically diverse chains to communicate with each other.

Mundis provides system-level services for bridging with current notable blockchains like Ethereum, Binance Smart Chain, Solana, Elrond using Simple Payment Verification (SPV).

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Layer 1 state machines

Extendability

Easy-to-create custom chains using the Substrate framework.

A state machine is a business-specific application that runs in the Multiverse. They are smaller, independent chains that manage their own consensus and have control over how blocks are generated. These chains are independent, interoperable application systems that benefit from Mundis Services.

The main feature of chains is the ability to move assets between them, enabling complete interoperability of worlds and asset interchangeability. Assets are designed to be fungible like coins or tokens or non-fungible such as NFTs. These chains will support a wide range of business and consumer applications, from DeFI systems to games.

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Layer 1 Validators

Governance

A solid system ensuring the involvement of all stakeholders, and coordinating network upgrades on-chain, autonomously, with no forks needed.

Layer 1 Validators are validator that secure a layer 1 by validating transactions and participating in the consensus. Since a side-chain has Proof-of-Stake (PoS) consensus, Layer 1 Validators must stake Mundis tokens to become eligible validators.

It's up to the creator of a side-chain to recruit Layer 1 Validators for its project, and Mundis provides the LaunchPad to help. Creators can list new projects for free on the LaunchPad, and citizens decide whether they pledge support for the project or not. A project that has citizen support has greater chances to attract Layer 1 Validators.

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Ruling system

When creating a new side-chain, builders can set genesis rules that enforce how that side-chain will work. Genesis rules define bootstrap parameters and consensus rules. Bootstrap parameters set the initial state of the Layer 1, the configuration of the economic system (e.g., tokens issued, inflation, etc.), and access to Services, DAO enablement, etc.

The builder of an side-chain can choose a DAO model for governance. The Layer 1 Validators will be included in the DAO and have voting rights on the consensus rules. The DAO model promotes active participation in the life of a side-chain and creates decentralization. Layer 1 Validators will probably prefer to join a side-chain with a DAO model as extra insurance for their stake.

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Assets

A side-chain can have both fungible and non-fungible assets. Assets are designed to be fungible like tokens or non-fungible like NFTs.

The main goal of Mundis is to promote interoperability. Exchange of assets must be supported between all Mundis chains. We chose Parity's cross-consensus message format XCM to enable native exchange of assets with XCM-enabled blockchains.

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Smart contracts

The Layer 0 will have limited support for smart-contracts, because they can have a significant impact on performance, and the Layer 0 needs to provide consistent performance. Because of this, only Mundis authorities can deploy smart-contracts on the Layer 0. These smart contracts should only fulfil critical services like distributed storage, name resolution, positioning, bridging to other chains etc.

Side-chains on the other hand can have full smart-contract support by enabling the Substrate Contracts pallet.

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Security

Security

Layer 0 security using PoS and the Mundis native token. Layer 1 state machines checkpoint Merkle proofs to Layer 0 for state validity.

LAYER 1 chains have Proof of Stake (PoS) consensus and are assumed to be adversarial by default since they are permissionless untrusted networks of unknown participants. A LAYER 1 chain needs to have active Layer 1 Validators and be alive for several epochs to be considered for inclusion in the timeline and be able to consume services.

Mundis is a bridging protocol, where each side-chain is sovereign and must maintain its own validator set and economic security.

Both Layer 0 and Layer 1 assume a byzantine adversarial model, where a minimum of 2/3n + 1 validators must be honest. Layer 0 records block headers from Layer 1 chains together with Merkle proofs to have full traceability of transactions across the ecosystem.

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